Asset-Herausgeber

Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption

Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta in Cielo

Raggiungendo piazza Duomo, rimarrai senza fiato per la ricchezza della sua facciata: la Cattedrale colpisce immediatamente per lo slancio delle guglie, l'oro dello sfondo dei mosaici, il rosone e i portali bronzei. Non a caso è la maggiore attrattiva di Orvieto: straordinaria sintesi tra architettura, scultura, arti decorative e pittura, è considerata un gioiello dello stile romanico-gotico.

 

La sua storia
La bellezza del Duomo non è solo nelle opere d’arte che conserva, ma anche nella storia secolare della sua costruzione e nelle tracce lasciate dalle importanti maestranze che vi hanno lavorato. Nonostante i tanti artisti che si sono susseguiti e i lunghi anni necessari alla sua costruzione, il suo stile uniforme e le linee armoniche ed equilibrate regalano fascino alla struttura. 
Il 14 novembre 1290 Papa Nicolò IV pose la prima pietra, in un periodo di grande vivacità economica e sociale e di spinta al rinnovamento spirituale della città. Il progetto originale viene attribuito ora ad Arnolfo di Cambio, ora a frà Bevignate da Perugia; di sicuro dal 1310 la direzione dei lavori passò a Lorenzo Maitani, il cui intervento caratterizzò la struttura in maniera decisiva. L’opera fu terminata solo alla fine del XVI secolo, con la realizzazione delle guglie laterali ad opera di Ippolito Scalza.

 

 

Un viaggio negli interni del Duomo

 

Entrando nella cattedrale l'impatto è di grande effetto, anche grazie alla bicromia del marmo, che sottolinea le masse murarie e le colonne. Lo spazio è solenne, scandito dagli alti pilastri che si susseguono creando un eccezionale gioco prospettico. Le numerose opere pittoriche e scultoree lungo le pareti e nelle cappelle rendono gli interni uno scrigno d'arte.
La struttura. Il Duomo ha pianta basilicale a tre navate, aperta da dieci cappelle. Il transetto destro è occupato dalla cappella Nuova o di San Brizio, un vero gioiello. Le sue pareti vennero affrescate dal pittore Luca Signorelli, che subentrò al Beato Angelico dopo che questi interruppe i lavori. Gli affreschi delle pareti e delle volte hanno come tema centrale il Giudizio Universale; intorno a questo ruotano tutti gli episodi e i personaggi legati alla rappresentazione.
Ugolino Di Prete Ilario e Pietro Di Puccio si occuparono invece della decorazione della zona absidale, con affreschi raffiguranti le Storie della Vergine. Particolarmente bello il finestrone dalle raffinate linee goticheggianti. Altro capolavoro è il coro, decorato con preziosi intagli e sculture.
Il transetto di sinistra è occupato dalla Cappella del Corporale. Qui si conserva il Reliquiario, al cui interno si può ammirare il Sacro Lino che si macchiò del sangue di Cristo durante il Miracolo di Bolsena: tradizione vuole che nel 1263 un prete boemo, Pietro da Praga, dubbioso della presenza del corpo di Cristo nell'Ostia consacrata, mentre celebrava messa nella chiesa di Santa Cristina a Bolsena, vide scendere dall'Ostia delle gocce di sangue che bagnarono il Corporale. Il Sacro Lino, per volere del Papa che si trovava ad Orvieto, venne portato in città ed esposto al popolo. Poco dopo si decise di edificare il Duomo per mostrare il Corporale miracolato. Sulla parete d'ingresso alla cappella trova posto uno degli organi più grandi d'Italia, con 5644 canne.
Altri gioielli da vedere. Accanto al fonte battesimale, sulla parete di sinistra, è ben visibile una Madonna con il Bambino affrescata da Gentile da Fabriano nel 1425.
Infine, dopo 120 anni hanno ritrovato posto all’interno del Duomo le statue monumentali dell’Annunciazione (1603), realizzate da Francesco Mochi e tra le opere più espressive del ‘600 italiano. 
Collocate per quasi tre secoli all’interno della cattedrale con altre 24 splendide sculture commissionate per valorizzare il Tempio cittadino, per lavori di restauro nel 1897 erano state trasferite nei magazzini e poi nell’ex chiesa di Sant’Agostino. 

 

Informazioni
Visite al Duomo, al Tesoro della Cattedrale e alla Cappella Nuovo o di S. Brizio:
- novembre-febbraio ore 9.30-17.00
- marzo e ottobre ore 9.30-18.00
- aprile-settembre ore 9.30-19.00
- domeniche e feste di precetto:
- novembre-febbraio ore 13.00-16.30
- marzo e ottobre ore 13.00-17.30
Per ulteriori informazioni: Opera del Duomo di Orvieto, tel. +39 0763 342477 – email opsm@opsm.it; Biglietteria, tel. +39 0763 343592 – email biglietteria@operadelduomo.it

 

Orvieto's Duomo cathedral fits in perfectly with the surrounding urban context, dominating the entire medieval village with its mass.
It is located on the eponymous square, which has been widened and reshaped over the centuries to give more room to the space surrounding the cathedral.  Next to it are the Canons' lodges and the  Torre di Maurizio tower.

The Cathedral represents the main attraction for the town of Orvieto, visited every year by many foreign and Italian tourists.
Its beauty arises not only from the works of art it contains, but also from its secular history, which has witnessed a multitude of important craftsmen, each of whom has left their mark in the building of the church.  A wonderful synthesis of architecture, sculpture, decorative arts and painting, it is today considered to be a jewel of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

Description

 

The cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption is in the centre of Orvieto.  All the city's main streets converge towards the cathedral, the edification of which was seen by all as a token of divine protection.

 


Orvieto has embodied itself and its identity in this very important, yet familiar building.  Indeed, in the medieval era, the city was characterised not only by its great economic and urban life, but also by a deep thrust of spiritual renewal, which found one of its most concrete manifestations in the building of the cathedral.
Pope Nicholas IV laid the first stone of the cathedral on 14 November 1290. The author of the original design is unknown, but believed by some to be Arnolfo di Cambio, and by others to be friar Bevignate of Perugia; what is known is that from 1310 onwards work was carried out under the direction of Lorenzo Maitani, who decisively shaped the evolution of the structure.  After reaching piazza Duomo, you will be struck by the richness of the facade; the spires reaching to the heavens, the gold used to make the mosaics, the series of sculptures on the pillars, the elaborate rose window and the bronzed doors are awe inspiring.  Such beauty is achieved through harmonious and balanced lines which tend to make the structure all the more fascinating.  One is struck by a number of things when entering the cathedral.  First of all is the two-tone marble which emphasises the entirety of the walls' and columns' mass. The space is solemn and grandiose, marked by the succession of high pillars which create an exceptional perspective aspect. 
The numerous pictorial and sculptural works which one can admire along its walls and in its chapels makes the cathedral a veritable treasure trove of art.
The cathedral has a basilica layout with ten chapels decorated with windows made with alabaster slabs.  The roof was entirely redone in the 19th century by Paolo Zampi and Paolo Cocchieri, both from Orvieto.
The right transept harbours the  Cappella Nuova o di San Brizio chapel, a true masterpiece. Its walls are covered in frescoes by the painter Luca Signorelli, started in 1499 after Saint Angelico let the works go unfinished.  The frescoes, on the walls and the vaults, have  Judgement Day as their central theme.  All the characters and episodes from this theme are present in the paintings here.
The apse also presents interesting frescoes decorating its walls, painted by Ugolino di Prete Ilario and Pietro Di Puccio with their  Stories of the Virgin.  Of particular beauty is the high window with its refined Gothic-type styling.  Another exceptional masterpiece is the choir, decorated with precious carvings and sculptures.
The left transept features the  cappella del Corporale chapel. Here the splendid  Reliquary is kept, inside of which one can admire the Holy Linen, which was covered in Christ's blood during the miracle of Bolsena.
On the entrance walls to the chapel is the splendid organ, considered one of the greatest in Italy.
Alongside the baptismal fonts, on the left wall, a  Madonna with Child, painted by Gentile da Fabriano in 1425, is still clearly visible.

Interesting fact
Tradition has it that the church was erected to celebrate the  Miracle of Bolsena. In 1263, a Bohemian priest, Peter of Prague, doubting the presence of Christ's body in the consecrated Host, saw drops of blood dripping from the Host onto the  Corporale while celebrating the mass in the church of Santa Cristina in Bolsena  The Holy Linen, following the Pope's will, was taken to the city and exhibited to the people. Shortly after, the decision to build the cathedral dedicated to Mary was taken, to exhibit the miraculous artefact.

 

Orvieto's Duomo cathedral fits in perfectly with the surrounding urban context, dominating the entire medieval village with its mass.
It is located on the eponymous square, which has been widened and reshaped over the centuries to give more room to the space surrounding the cathedral.  Next to it are the Canons' lodges and the  Torre di Maurizio tower.

The Cathedral represents the main attraction for the town of Orvieto, visited every year by many foreign and Italian tourists.
Its beauty arises not only from the works of art it contains, but also from its secular history, which has witnessed a multitude of important craftsmen, each of whom has left their mark in the building of the church.  A wonderful synthesis of architecture, sculpture, decorative arts and painting, it is today considered to be a jewel of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

Description

 

The cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption is in the centre of Orvieto.  All the city's main streets converge towards the cathedral, the edification of which was seen by all as a token of divine protection.
Orvieto has embodied itself and its identity in this very important, yet familiar building.  Indeed, in the medieval era, the city was characterised not only by its great economic and urban life, but also by a deep thrust of spiritual renewal, which found one of its most concrete manifestations in the building of the cathedral.
Pope Nicholas IV laid the first stone of the cathedral on 14 November 1290. The author of the original design is unknown, but believed by some to be Arnolfo di Cambio, and by others to be friar Bevignate of Perugia; what is known is that from 1310 onwards work was carried out under the direction of Lorenzo Maitani, who decisively shaped the evolution of the structure.  After reaching piazza Duomo, you will be struck by the richness of the facade; the spires reaching to the heavens, the gold used to make the mosaics, the series of sculptures on the pillars, the elaborate rose window and the bronzed doors are awe inspiring.  Such beauty is achieved through harmonious and balanced lines which tend to make the structure all the more fascinating.  One is struck by a number of things when entering the cathedral.  First of all is the two-tone marble which emphasises the entirety of the walls' and columns' mass. The space is solemn and grandiose, marked by the succession of high pillars which create an exceptional perspective aspect. 
The numerous pictorial and sculptural works which one can admire along its walls and in its chapels makes the cathedral a veritable treasure trove of art.
The cathedral has a basilica layout with ten chapels decorated with windows made with alabaster slabs.  The roof was entirely redone in the 19th century by Paolo Zampi and Paolo Cocchieri, both from Orvieto.
The right transept harbours the Cappella Nuova o di San Brizio chapel, a true masterpiece. Its walls are covered in frescoes by the painter Luca Signorelli, started in 1499 after Saint Angelico let the works go unfinished.  The frescoes, on the walls and the vaults, have Judgement Day as their central theme.  All the characters and episodes from this theme are present in the paintings here.
The apse also presents interesting frescoes decorating its walls, painted by Ugolino di Prete Ilario and Pietro Di Puccio with their Stories of the Virgin.  Of particular beauty is the high window with its refined Gothic-type styling.  Another exceptional masterpiece is the choir, decorated with precious carvings and sculptures.
The left transept features the cappella del Corporale chapel. Here the splendid Reliquary is kept, inside of which one can admire the Holy Linen, which was covered in Christ's blood during the miracle of Bolsena.
On the entrance walls to the chapel is the splendid organ, considered one of the greatest in Italy.
Alongside the baptismal fonts, on the left wall, a Madonna with Child, painted by Gentile da Fabriano in 1425, is still clearly visible.

Interesting fact
Tradition has it that the church was erected to celebrate the Miracle of Bolsena. In 1263, a Bohemian priest, Peter of Prague, doubting the presence of Christ's body in the consecrated Host, saw drops of blood dripping from the Host onto the Corporale while celebrating the mass in the church of Santa Cristina in Bolsena The Holy Linen, following the Pope's will, was taken to the city and exhibited to the people. Shortly after, the decision to build the cathedral dedicated to Mary was taken, to exhibit the miraculous artefact.

Der Dom von Orvieto gliedert sich perfekt in das Stadtbild ein, das ihn umgibt und beherrscht mit seinem Ausmaß das gesamte mittelalterliche Dorf.
Er befindet sich auf dem gleichnamigen Platz, welcher im Zuge der Jahrhunderte erweitert und umstrukturiert wurde, um der Fläche um die Kathedrale mehr Raum zu verschaffen. Nebenan stehen die Häuschen der Kanoniker und der  Maurizio-Turm.

 

 

Der Dom von Orvieto gliedert sich perfekt in das Stadtbild ein, das ihn umgibt und beherrscht mit seinem Ausmaß das gesamte mittelalterliche Dorf.
Er befindet sich auf dem gleichnamigen Platz, welcher im Zuge der Jahrhunderte erweitert und umstrukturiert wurde, um der Fläche um die Kathedrale mehr Raum zu verschaffen. Nebenan stehen die Häuschen der Kanoniker und der Maurizio-Turm.
Die Kathedrale ist die bedeutendste städtische Sehenswürdigkeit von Orvieto, welche jedes Jahr von unzähligen italienischen und ausländischen Touristen besucht wird.
Ihre Schönheit liegt nicht nur in den im Inneren erhaltenen Kunstwerken, sondern auch in ihrer jahrhundertealten Geschichte, welche unzählige bedeutende Kirchenbelegschaften überlebt hat, von der jede einen kleinen Teil von sich am Kirchenbau hinterlassen hat. Eine wunderbare Synthese von Architektur, Bildhauerei, Kunst und Malerei, die heute als Juwel der römisch-gotischen Architektur gilt.

 

Beschreibung

 

Die Kathedrale Mariä Himmelfahrt befindet sich im Zentrum Orvietos. Alle Hauptstraßen laufen zu ihr hin zusammen und ihr Bau im Stadtzentrum wurde von allen als göttlicher Schutz für das Volk gesehen.
Diesem eindrucksvollen Bau, der jedoch zugleich dem Bürger sehr nah ist, hat Orvieto sich selbst und seine Identität gänzlich hingegeben  Tatsächlich kennzeichnete das Städtchen im Mittelalter neben seiner hohen wirtschaftlichen und bürgerlichen Lebhaftigkeit auch starker spiritueller Auftrieb, der seinen anschaulichsten Ausdruck in der Verwirklichung eben dieser Kathedrale fand.
Ihr Bau begann am 14. November 1290, als Papst Nikolaus IV den Grundstein legte. Obgleich der ursprüngliche Erschaffer des Projekts unbekannt bleibt, mal wird es Arnolfo di Cambio, mal Bruder Bevigante von Perugia zugeschrieben, ist sicher, dass ab 1310 die Leitung der Bauarbeiten an Lorenzo Maitani übergeben wurde, dessen Eingriff das Gebäude stark geprägt hat. Man gerät ins Schwärmen wenn der Dom mit seiner prächtigen Fassade vor einem auftaucht: der beeindruckende Schwung der hohen Fialen, das für den Hintergrund der Mosaiken verwendete Gold, die mit Bildhauerei verzierten Pfeiler, die aufwendig gearbeitete Fensterrose und die Bronzeportale. Es liegt eine derartige Schönheit in den harmonischen und ausgewogenen Linien, als strebten sie danach dem Gebäude noch mehr Ausstrahlung zu verleihen. Die Wirkung beim Betreten der Kathedrale ist enorm. Als erstes wird man vom Zweifarbendruck des Marmors getroffen, der die gesamte Mauermasse und die Säulen untermalt.  Der Raum ist erhaben und eindrucksvoll, unterteilt von den aufeinander folgenden Pfeilern, wodurch ein außergewöhnliches perspektivisches Spiel entsteht.
Die zahlreichen Maler- und Bildhauerwerke, die man entlang der Seitenwände und in den Kapellen bewundern kann, machen aus dem Inneren einen wahren Schrein der Kunst.
Der Dom hat einen Basilikagrundriss, der sich zu zehn Kapellen öffnet, deren Fenster mit Alabasterscheiben verschlossen sind. Die Abdeckung wurde im 19. Jahrhundert von den Orvietern Paolo Zampi und Paolo Cocchieri vollständig neu gemacht.
Das rechte Querschiff ist gänzlich von der Cappella Nuova oder Kapelle des Heiligen Brictius ausgefüllt, ein wahres Kunstjuwel. Ihre Wände sind mit Fresken von dem Maler Luca Signorelli versehen, welcher damit 1499 begann, nachdem Fra Angelico die Arbeiten abgebrochen hatte. Die Fresken an den Wänden und in den Gewölben handeln vor allem vom Jüngsten Gericht. Drum herum kreisen alle Vorkommnisse und Figuren, die mit der Darstellung verbunden sind.
Auch im Bereich der Apsis sind die Wände mit interessanten Fresken von Ugolino Di Prete Ilario und Pietro Di Puccio mit Darstellungen von Marienleben geschmückt. Besonders schön ist auch das hohe große Fenster mit den kunstfertigen gotischen Linien. Ein weiteres außergewöhnliches Meisterwerk ist der Chor, verziert mit kostbaren Schnitzereien und Skulpturen.
Das linke Querschiff beansprucht die Cappella del Corporale. Hier kann man im prächtigen Schrein das darin aufbewahrte Messtuch bewundern, welches während des Wunders von Bolsena mit Christi Blut befleckt wurde.
An der Eingangswand der Kapelle befindet sich die wunderschöne Orgel, die für eine der größten Italiens gehalten wird.
Neben dem Taufbecken, an der linken Wand, erkennt man noch gut das Fresko einer Madonna mit Kind von Gentile da Fabriano aus dem Jahr 1425.

Wissenswertes
Die Legende besagt, dass die Kirche erbaut wurde, um das Wunder von Bolsena zu feiern. Im Jahr 1263 zweifelte ein böhmischer Priester, Pietro da Praga, an der Transsubstantiation. Während er in der Kirche der Heiligen Christina in Bolsena die Messe zelebrierte, sah er beim Brechen der Hostie Blut auf das Korporale tropfen. Das Messtuch wurde, gemäß dem Willen des Papstes, der sich in Orvieto aufhielt, in die Stadt gebracht und dem Volk vorgeführt.  Kurz darauf wurde der Bau des Doms beschlossen, der Maria für die Preisgabe des Korporale geweiht ist.

 

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